Prior to the influxes of refugees that would begin with the Palestine War () of 1948, the population of the Jordan Valley met its needs through rain-fed agriculture, and so were largely dependent on seasonal fluctuations in rainfall and river flows.Because of the limited size of this population and its distribution across Jordan, there was no need to extract or redirect large portions of water across Jordan’s landscape.Therefore, water awareness campaigns have targeted people at all levels of Jordanian society in order to convince them to follow the Jordanian government’s advice on the use and conservation of water.Tags: Doctoral Dissertation FellowshipHow To Write Literature Review ExampleMetaphor Essay TitlesWhat Do I Need To Write A PaperPepsi Lipton Brisk Case Study AnalysisMedical Terminology Essay QuestionAge Of Exploration EssayResearch Paper On Alcohol AbusePay Someone To Write A Research Paper For Menus
It was the first influx of Palestinian refugees resulting from the 1948 that sufficiently attracted the attention of the international community to begin large scale development of the Jordanian water sector.
The 1948 influx of Palestinian refugees into Jordan forged together three key elements that shape Jordan’s development of water resources up to the present: the demographic pressures of refugee populations, resulting concerns over the sufficiency of Jordan’s water resources, and the role of international development aid in stabilizing Jordan against the potential of these two interrelated factors to threaten the state’s security.
Jordan is said to be among the most water-scarce countries in the world; according to the Ministry of Water and Irrigation (MWI), Jordan is the second most water scarce country worldwide.
The reasons behind water scarcity are natural (i.e., climate change and insufficient precipitation), political (i.e., transboundary nature of most of the surface water resources in the country), infrastructural (i.e., high rate of non-revenue water (NRW), illegal connections, and physical leakages and losses), and social (i.e., increasing demand due to a growing population and in-migration of refugees).
Historically, the Jordanian government might best be categorized as a relatively strong state that has worked to exert very direct control over the management of the country’s water resources in local communities .
Since the 1950s at least, the central government has worked with the support of international donors and development organizations to centralize control of the nation’s water resources and harness them to support progressive and varied influxes of refugees throughout the decades after Jordan’s independence in 1946.The goal of this strategy is to align popular concerns about water security with government concerns over state security, i.e., to create responsible water citizens.This article suggests that the Jordanian MWI seeks to shape citizens’ water behavior through two key strategies.The MWI has worked both internally and within the public sphere to eliminate this notion, and to rearticulate its role in securing water for its citizens as a role of knowledge sharing and water conservation education.Relatedly, the idea of luxury is most likely a function of the impacts of water rationing on the Jordanian public since this policy was initiated in the 1960s .To solve water scarcity, the MWI has been exploring different solutions, focusing mainly on increasing the water supply, but also on reducing the demand, including water conservation campaigns.This article examines the water awareness campaigns of the MWI, and it argues that the MWI’s water awareness campaigns use two specific security discourses to legitimate both state ownership over water and interventions in people’s daily water practices.The aim of this paper, therefore, is to shed light on how a government faced with a severe national water crisis “secures” a more water-conscious citizen using the two security discourses introduced above. The first introductory section presents a background on the responses to the government’s previous supply reduction policies and assessments of water security threats.The second section describes the conceptual basis underpinning the study. The fourth follows by examining how the Jordanian government is shaping individuals’ water conservation behaviors in the context of education, religious observance, and legal and financial regimes of responsibility. This section analyses public perspectives on water conservation and previous responses to policies of supply reduction as two key factors in the government assessment of Jordan’s water conservation awareness programs within the MWI’s water strategy.Water awareness programs aim to accomplish this by aligning popular concerns about water security with government concerns over state security; i.e., to create responsible water citizens.The MWI believes that national stability and security, as well as a sustainable future, depend on water usage being firmly under central government control, and views areas of local water hardship as potential sites of state insecurity.