Research Paper On Psychological Disorders

Psychological disorders have etiologies that are largely multi-factorial, involving complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Early environmental exposures influence schizophrenia expression even in the presence of strong genetic predisposition. E., Cannon, M., Mc Clay, J., Murray, R., Harrington, H., Taylor, A., Arseneault, L., Williams, B., Braithwaite, A., Poulton, R., Craig, I. A number of risk factors have been implicated in the development of psychological disorders, but their relative contributions to mental illness are specific to different disorders and individual patients, and a precise cause can rarely be identified on an individual basis.(1) Below is a sampling of some of the variables identified as risk factors in the development of psychological disorders. Mental imagery is increasingly shown in the literature to play a key role in various psychological disorders.

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However, because of the retrospective nature of the study, researchers could not determine which of the many variables associated with famine (e.g.

nutrient deficiencies, generalized stress, infection, ingestion of toxic substances, or a combination of those factors) contributed to the increased risk of psychosis.(6) Determining the relative contribution of environmental factors to the onset of schizophrenia is further complicated by the interactions between genetic and environmental variables. (2005) found that different versions of the catecholamine-O-methyl transferase (COMT) gene, which is involved in the regulation of dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex, affected the degree to which adolescent cannabis use was a risk factor for schizophrenia.(7) The genetic contribution to depressive disorders is estimated to be approximately 30 to 40 %.(8) While a variety of environmental characteristics have been identified as risk factors for depression, early life stressors, such as childhood physical or sexual abuse, parental neglect, and loss of a parent, have been shown to significantly increase the probability of developing depression later in life.(9) The effects of early life stressors are influenced by a variety of genes, and the 5-HTTLPR gene, involved in serotonin transporter functioning, has received significant attention. (2003) found that the short version of the gene, which is associated with a reduction in serotonin transporter function, increased the risk of developing depressive symptoms and suicidality following exposure to stressful life events and maltreatment during childhood.(10) However, results from studies of the 5-HTTLPR gene have not been consistent, and Heim et al.

Diagnosing mental-health issues may seem straightforward: Patients discuss their symptoms and a clinician matches those symptoms to a disorder and devises an appropriate treatment.

In reality, this view belies the complexity inherent in understanding, classifying, and diagnosing psychiatric phenomena.

Frontiers reserves the right to guide an out-of-scope manuscript to a more suitable section or journal at any stage of peer review.

We use cookies to make interactions with our website easy and meaningful, to better understand the use of our services, and to tailor advertising.(2012) emphasize that many studies have also identified a host of environmental risk factors for schizophrenia. For instance, a classic study of the Dutch Hunger Winter (1944-1945) found that exposure to famine early in pregnancy was associated with a significant increase in schizophrenia risk for both male and female offspring. (2012) suggest that such variation occurs because different genetic backgrounds may alter the nature of the 5-HTTLPR gene by environmental interaction. Furthermore, a variety of other genes may influence this interaction, as a number of gene-environment interactions have been reported in recent studies of the 5-HTTLPR gene.(11)(4) Susser et al. Advances in clinical science over the past several decades have led to major improvements in how mental disorder is diagnosed and treated—millions of individuals now have access to robust, evidence-based interventions.But as science reveals more about the origins and development of mental disorder, it also raises more questions. Moderation of the effect of adolescent-onset cannabis use on adult psychosis by a functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene: longitudinal evidence of a gene-environment interaction. W., Harrington, H., Mc Clay, J., Mill, J., Martin, J., Braithwaite, A., Poulton, R. Influence of life stress on depression: moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene.The factors listed above do not act in isolation to contribute to the development of psychological disorders, and the nature of gene by environment interactions is the subject of substantial research. Gene-environment interactions describe the phenomenon by which certain gene variants modulate the effects of environmental factors.

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