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A unique study shows energy savings of 25 percent using smart process optimization.Our research group High yield pulping technology is now finalizing the research profile e2mp - energy effiency in mechanical pulping.For example, by softening of the wood through increased temperature combined with the addition of small amounts of sulfite and increased intensity in wood refining, the energy efficiency of the refining step can be significantly increased.
The industry would benefit greatly from a searchable materials database that includes processing, microstructure, and properties to identify existing or tailored solutions to meet these challenges.
Three interrelated programs are focused on improving the energy and environmental efficiency of electrolysis cells used to smelt primary aluminum.
A related project is the development of wettable cathode materials to improve cell efficiency.
The industry would benefit from a better understanding of the relationship between changes in raw materials used to make carbon anodes and their performance in the electrolytic cell.
Scrap is an intrinsic by-product of aluminum fabrication, and the industry needs new, recycle-tolerant alloys with specifications that are better matched with scrap composition, thereby optimizing scrap utilization.
The industry also needs robust, continuous-casting technology 5xxx and 6xxx alloys.Existing models could be improved for the solidification process, control of solidification during the casting process, and determining the relationship between composition, casting process, microstructure, surface properties, and stress/strain behavior at high temperatures.In the fabrication of wrought products, constituent models for alloys and the formability of automotive sheet could be improved, as well as modeling of the complex relationship between product behavior, structural properties, materials composition, and manufacturing processes (e.g., the relationship between mechanical properties and the formability of aluminum sheet, composition, microstructure, and thermomechanical history).The production of aluminum is extremely energy intensive, and the use of consumable carbon anodes gives rise to emissions of greenhouse gases.Inert anode and cathode technology for electrowinning of aluminum in primary electrolysis cells is the subject of extensive ongoing research.This chapter discusses the R&D opportunities for select IOF industries and for crosscutting R&D (using refractories as an example).After the materials needs of selected IOF industries are described, the R&D opportunities are discussed."The trial shows that newsprint can be manufactured with a total energy consumption of approximately 1,500 k Wh / ton, which was 900 k Wh / ton lower than the reference, ie. All paper properties except tear strength were better for the demo mass compared with the reference paper.The printing properties such as runability, dusting, saturation, imprinting were as good for the demo paper as the reference paper." The research projects in e2mp have generated many published scientific articles.Productivity could be improved if the process could be operated at high caustic concentrations, but this would require low-cost, high-temperature, abrasion-resistant, corrosion-resistant materials or coatings. The primary aluminum sector would benefit from an alternative to the prebaked carbon anodes now used in the smelting process.The new, nonconsumable anode material would have a longer life than carbon and, at the same time, would avoid carbon-dioxide emissions (an OIT project to develop this material has already been funded).