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Include the opinions of others (politicians, futurists, other professionals). It usually begins with a few short introductory paragraphs that restate purpose and research questions.
Again, nearly all proposals follow the same format.
In fact, the proposal is identical to the first three chapters of the final paper except that it's writtten in future tense.
The title page has no page number and it is not counted in any page numbering.
Left margin: 1" Right margin: 1" Top margin: 1" Bottom margin: 1" Pages are numbered at the top right. Generally, the same font must be used throughout the manuscript, except 1) tables and graphs may use a different font, and 2) chapter titles and section headings may use a different font. TITLE PAGE TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I - Introduction Introductory paragraphs Statement of the problem Purpose Significance of the study Research questions and/or hypotheses CHAPTER II - Background Literature review Definition of terms CHAPTER III - Methodology Restate purpose and research questions or null hypotheses Population and sampling Instrumentation (include copy in appendix) Procedure and time frame Analysis plan (state critical alpha level and type of statistical tests) Validity and reliability Assumptions Scope and limitations CHAPTER IV - Results CHAPTER V - Conclusions and recommendations Summary (of what you did and found) Discussion (explanation of findings - why do you think you found what you did?
Example of a problem statement: "The frequency of job layoffs is creating fear, anxiety, and a loss of productivity in middle management workers." While the problem statement itself is just one sentence, it is always accompanied by several paragraphs that elaborate on the problem. An example of an operational definition is: "For the purpose of this research, improvement is operationally defined as posttest score minus pretest score".
Present persuasive arguments why the problem is important enough to study. The methodology section describes your basic research plan.The style guide contains hundreds of rules for grammar, layout, and syntax. Instead of saying "I will ..." or "We will ...", say something like "The researcher will ..." or "The research team will ...".A suggestion: Never present a draft (rough) copy of your proposal, thesis, dissertation, or research paper..if asked.There is one blank line between a section heading and the text that follows it. For example: One researcher (Jones, 2004) found that... It sets the stage for the paper and puts your topic in perspective. If you are planning to explore a relatively new area, the literature review should cite similar areas of study or studies that lead up to the current research.A complete bibliography is attached at the end of the paper. The introduction often contains dramatic and general statements about the need for the study. Never say that your area is so new that no research exists. It doesn't matter whether you've done a customer satisfaction survey, an employee opinion survey, a health care survey, or a marketing research survey. The rationale is that readers of research reports (i.e., decision makers, funders, etc.) will know exactly where to find the information they are looking for, regardless of the individual report.Once you've learned the basic rules for research proposal and report writing, you can apply them to any research discipline.Usually, just one sentence is necessary to define the population.Examples are: "The population for this study is defined as all adult customers who make a purchase in our stores during the sampling time frame", or "..home owners in the city of Minneapolis", or "..potential consumers of our product".Readers of the paper will be looking for these chapters and sections so you should not deviate from the standard format unless you are specifically requested to do so by the research sponsor.Most research studies begin with a written proposal.