Diabetes Case Study

Diabetes Case Study-22
Diabetes Insipidus resembles diabetes mellitus because the symptoms of both diseases are increased urination and thirst.

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His physician remarked that the kidneys were not concentrating urine normally.

Case discussion- The patient is suffering from Diabetes Insipidus.

Sometimes diabetes Insipidus is referred to as “water” diabetes to distinguish it from the more common diabetes mellitus or “sugar” diabetes.

The regulation of urine production occur in the hypothalamus, which produces ADH in the supraoptic and Para ventricular nuclei.

3) Nephrogenic DI -The third type of DI is caused by an inability of the kidneys to respond to the “antidiuretic effect” of normal amounts of vasopressin.

The kidneys’ ability to respond to ADH can be impaired by drugs—like lithium, for example—and by chronic disorders including polycystic kidney disease, sickle-cell disease, kidney failure, partial blockage of the ureters, and inherited genetic disorders.4) Dipsogenic DI –The fourth form of DI occurs when vasopressin is suppressed by excessive intake of fluids.

If desmopressin reduces urine output and increases osmolarity, the pituitary production of ADH is deficient, and the kidney responds normally.

If the DI is due to renal pathology, desmopressin does not change either urine output or osmolarity.

Excessive excretion of diluted urine with a low osmolarity and history of head injury are all suggestive of diabetes Insipidus.

Head trauma is one of the most common causes of diabetes Insipidus, particularly if the posterior pituitary stalk is disrupted.

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