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Hyperosmolarity and depletion of intracellular water are a result which triggers sensors in the brain to interpret this as thirst (polydipsia) (Hill 2009).An increase in hunger (polyphagia) is stimulated due to insulin deficiency activating catabolism of proteins and fats increasing appetite (Hill 2009) and polyuria ( frequent urination) is due to excess glucose creating an osmotic diuresis in the kidneys (Hill 2009) drawing large amounts of water with it.
As Mr Daley is a newly diagnosed patient, there is a real need to focus on education.
Education has been identified as a significant factor in the effective control of blood glucose levels.(Jerreat 2009 ) Managing diabetes can be challenging and support is needed if the individual is to have a close to normal life (AIHW 2006).
Insulin allows glucose to enter cell membranes in most tissues (Brown & Edwards 2008).
An increased blood glucose level is the main stimulus of insulin synthesis and secretion (Brown & Edwards 2008).
Long term uncontrolled diabetes mellitus leads to chronic health issues, disability, a poor quality of life and premature death in Australia s worldwide (Thomson 2003) .
In Australia, aboriginal people are more likely to develop Type 2 diabetes than non aboriginal Australians (NATSIHS 2006).Firstly education is important to emphasise to the patient the importance of close monitoring and management as diabetes can become a chronic disease with multiple health issues and a poor quality of life (AIHW 2006).Brown & Edwards (2008 P.1352) points out that patient teaching enables them to take control and to become confident in participating in their own care; this also provides the basis for a successful treatment plan.Case Study on Type2 Diabetes Mellitus This paper will look at the physiology of normal blood glucose.The pathophysiology of Diabetes mellitus type 2 with a description of some of the common presenting symptoms of polyuria, polydipsia and polyphagia.The newly diagnosed patient should be informed of the importance of these symptoms which if left unnoticed or ignored can lead to hyperosmotic non-ketotic state (Hill 2009).The patient would have a high glycaemic measurement of 30mmol/l or greater and in desperate need of rehydration to prevent the onset of a diabetic coma (Hill 2009).Another important role of insulin is in the peripheral tissues where it facilitates glucose into cells, transport of amino acids across muscle membranes to synthesise into protein and transport of trigylcerides into adipose tissue.Thus insulin is a storage or anabolic hormone (Brown & Edwards 2008).This exposure to foods high in fat and sugars, alcohol and nicotine use along with a sedentary lifestyle have placed them in a high risk category of developing diabetes and at an earlier age than non indigenous people (Thomson 2003).Aboriginal people had the genetic makeup to survive when food was scarce but now this once efficient metabolism, exposed to a western influence is now working against them (Thomson 2003).