Writes Gary Howard (2002), “Whether the measure is grades, test scores, attendance, discipline referrals, drop-out or graduation rates, those students who differ most from mainstream White, middle/upper class, English speaking America, are also most vulnerable to being mis-served by our nation’s schools.” As educators, how do we understand this phenomenon in ways that will help us address it effectively? Naval Academy -- Military Professional Education System -- Military Training Doctrine, Philosophy and Practice -- Misconduct in Education -- Mississippi Freedom Schools -- Mnemonic Strategies and Techniques -- Modern Language Association of America -- Modern Red Schoolhouse -- Montessori, Maria -- Moral Development -- Moral Education -- Morrison, Henry C. The answers are multiple, varied, complex, and interconnected, which is one reason why gaps can be so persistent despite the efforts of educators, schools, and whole systems.A seminal study by James Banks and several colleagues (2000) provided a comprehensive overview of variables related to the achievement gap.Funded by the Carnegie Corporation, the study identified 62 variables, organized into 5 categories and 12 principles, related to educational equity. -- Principal, School -- Private Schooling -- Professional Development Schools -- Progressive Education -- Project Method -- Prosser, Charles -- Protestant School Systems -- Psychologist, School -- Public Education, Criticism Of -- Public School Budgeting, Accounting, and Auditing -- Putnam, Alice -- Race, Ethnicity, and Culture -- Cultural Expectations and Student Learning -- Latino Growth -- Racial and Ethnic Minority Students in Higher Education -- Readability Indices -- Reading -- Beginning Reading -- Comprehension -- Content Areas -- Interest -- Learning From Text -- Prior Knowledge, Beliefs, and Learning -- Teaching Of -- Value of Reading Engagement For Children -- Reading Disabilities -- Records and Reports, School -- Recreation Programs in the Schools -- Regional Laboratories and Research and Development Centers -- Research Grants and Indirect Costs -- Research Methods -- Overview -- Qualitative and Ethnographic -- School and Program Evaluation -- Verbal Protocols -- Research Misconduct -- Research Universities -- Residential Colleges -- Resource Allocation in Higher Education -- Rice, John A. -- Motivation -- Overview -- Instruction -- Self-Regulated Learning -- Motor Learning -- Multicultural Education -- Multiculturalism in Higher Education -- Museum As an Educational Institution, The -- Music Education -- Overview -- Preparation of Teachers -- National Academy of Sciences -- National Archives and Records Administration -- National Art Education Association -- National Association For the Education of Young Children -- National Association of Biology Teachers -- National Association of Elementary School Principals -- National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities -- National Association of Independent Schools -- National Association of Schools of Art and Design -- National Association of Secondary School Principals -- National Association of State Boards of Education -- National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges -- National Board For Professional Teaching Standards -- National Business Education Association -- National Catholic Educational Association -- National Center For Education Statistics -- National Committee For Children and Youth -- National Communication Association -- National Conference of State Legislatures -- National Council For Accreditation of Teacher Education -- National Council For the Social Studies -- National Council of Teachers of English -- National Council of Teachers of Mathematics -- National Education Association -- National Endowment For the Arts -- National Endowment For the Humanities -- National Governors Association -- National Honor Society -- National Merit Scholarships -- National Pta -- National School Boards Association -- National School Public Relations Association -- National Science Foundation -- National Science Teachers Association -- Neighborhoods -- Neill, A. -- New American Schools -- Newlon, Jesse -- No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 -- Nongovernmental Organizations and Foundations -- Nongraded Schools -- Nontraditional Students in Higher Education -- Ntl Institute For Applied Behavioral Science -- Nursing Education -- Nutrition and Children's Physical Health -- Open Classroom Schools -- Open Education -- Outcome Based Education -- Outdoor and Environmental Education -- Out-Of-School Influences and Academic Success -- Paideia Program -- Palmer, Alice Freeman -- Parental Involvement in Education -- Parenting -- Overview -- High-Risk Neighborhoods -- Influence of Parents' Level of Education -- Influence On Child's Educational Aspirations and Attainment -- Peace Education -- Peer Relations and Learning -- People With Disabilities, Federal Programs to Assist -- Personal and Psychological Counseling At Colleges and Universities -- Personal and Psychological Problems of College Students -- Pestalozzi, Johann -- Philosophy of Education -- Historical Overview -- Current Trends -- Physical Disabilities, Education of Individuals With -- Physical Education -- Overview -- Preparation of Teachers -- Piaget, Jean -- Plato -- Population and Education -- Postdoctoral Education -- Poverty and Education -- Overview -- Children and Adolescents -- Presidency, College and University -- Pressey, Sidney L. -- Bond, Horace Mann -- Bowen, Howard -- Boyer, Ernest -- Brain-Based Education -- Brameld, Theodore -- Brookings Institution -- Broudy, Harry S. Naval Academy -- Military Professional Education System -- Military Training Doctrine, Philosophy and Practice -- Misconduct in Education -- Mississippi Freedom Schools -- Mnemonic Strategies and Techniques -- Modern Language Association of America -- Modern Red Schoolhouse -- Montessori, Maria -- Moral Development -- Moral Education -- Morrison, Henry C. -- Bethune, Mary Mcleod -- Bilingual Education -- Bilingualism, Second Language Learning, and English As A Second Language -- Binet, Alfred -- Bloom, B. -- Blow, Susan -- Board of Trustees, College and University -- Bobbitt, Franklin -- Bode, Boyd H. The sheer number of variables is evidence that any response by school systems must be multidimensional, targeted at multiple levels of the system, and sustained over time.We can begin to understand the many variables that contribute to achievement gaps by examining how these factors might affect the school system at 3 different levels: district/school leadership, classroom, and student.