Walking upright may have provided greater vision regarding predators, reduced direct heat and greater circulation, and allowed for greater ground coverage.The oldest tools discovered - rock fragments to cut and scrape - are nearly 3 million years old.Others, however, provide evidence in Africa millenia before. In Africa, Makapansgat is the site of the discovery of the Makapansgat pebble.Tags: Compare And Contrast Essay About Martin Luther King Malcolm XCauses Poverty EssaysEssays Of Everything That Rises Must ConvergeWriting A Lab Report BiologyParaphrasing Essay MlaProblem Solving ApproachesOn Writing The College Application EssayPercentage HomeworkScientific World Essay
Social learning fuelled the technological revolution - gradually.
Language is enabled anatomically - neural connections to the tongue, diaphragm and chest muscles.
Palaeoanthropology, the study of our ancestors, has leapt forward in several important fields in the last few decades.
Moreover, DNA analysis and molecular biology have led to extraordinary advances in our understanding of the regional biological history of modern humans.
The science of genomics - the genetic study of the genomes and DNA sequence of organisms - helps explain this.
The genomes of humans and apes differ by little more than 1%, but this in fact means there are over 30 million point mutations.Homo heidelbergensis used language 600,000 years ago.Language - or communication - would have begun with hand gestures and sounds that mimicked natural faunal sounds.This tiny piece - only 3.5 cms in height - of volcanic scoria, reddened by heat and incorporating specks of charcoal does not immediately resemble a figurine.Largely natural, it is the groove around the neck and others on the sides which have been shown to be deliberate modifications absent from other scoria found in the area.The pebble, found some distance from any possible natural source, was in the possesion of a female Australopithecus africanus, an early hominid living between 3 and 2 million years ago.The pebble was not a manufactured object, but it was possibly recognized it as a symbolic face, and treasured as such.For example, protein-producing genes affect brain size and speech.Some gene developments - or gene expressions - may lead to extinction, whilst others can cause innovation.It was 1 million years later when the whole rock, not the fragments, was fashioned and used as an axe.This tool-making then evolved over the next million years. Language is important because that implies 'culture' - the spread of knowledge; copying and informing.