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As technology improved and proliferated, there was a greater need for educated employees.This saw an increase in schooling, with the eventual introduction of compulsory schooling.Child labour played an important role in the Industrial Revolution from its outset, often brought about by economic hardship.
A succession of laws on child labour, the so-called Factory Acts, were passed in the UK in the 19th century.
Children younger than nine were not allowed to work, those aged 9–16 could work 16 hours per day per Cotton Mills Act.
This is especially the case in non-literate societies.
Most pre-industrial skill and knowledge were amenable to being passed down through direct mentoring or apprenticing by competent adults.
Pre-industrial societies were characterised by low productivity and short life expectancy; preventing children from participating in productive work would be more harmful to their welfare and that of their group in the long run.
In pre-industrial societies, there was little need for children to attend school.These children mainly worked in agriculture, home-based assembly operations, factories, mining, and services such as news boys—some worked night shifts lasting 12 hours.With the rise of household income, availability of schools and passage of child labour laws, the incidence rates of child labour fell.In 19th-century Great Britain, one-third of poor families were without a breadwinner, as a result of death or abandonment, obliging many children to work from a young age.In England and Scotland in 1788, two-thirds of the workers in 143 water-powered cotton mills were described as children.These cities drew in the population that was rapidly growing due to increased agricultural output.This process was replicated in other industrialising countries.Child labour refers to the exploitation of children through any form of work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and is mentally, physically, socially or morally harmful.although these laws do not consider all work by children as child labour; exceptions include work by child artists, family duties, supervised training, and some forms of child work practiced by Amish children, as well as by Indigenous children in the Americas.The regulation of child labour began from the earliest days of the Industrial Revolution.The first act to regulate child labour in Britain was passed in 1803.